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ran football quoten

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Hidetora Ichimonji, a powerful though now elderly warlord , decides to divide his kingdom among his three sons: Taro, Jiro, and Saburo.

Taro, the eldest, will receive the prestigious First Castle and become leader of the Ichimonji clan, while Jiro and Saburo will be given the Second and Third Castles.

Hidetora lectures his sons about the importance of unity using three arrows one arrow is easy to snap in half but three arrows bundled together are much more durable.

Saburo, however, breaks all three arrows with his knee and calls the lecture foolish. He points out that Hidetora is foolish if he expects his sons to be loyal to him, reminding him that even Hidetora had previously used the most ruthless methods to attain power.

Eventually Tango appears with provisions but to no avail. Tango does not follow him. In a short but violent siege, virtually all defenders are slaughtered as the Third Castle is set alight.

Solitarily, Hidetora succumbs to madness and wanders away from the burning castle. Hidetora is discovered wandering in the wilderness by Kyoami, and Tango, who is still loyal to him and who stays to assist Hidetora.

In his madness, Hidetora is haunted by horrific visions of the people he destroyed in his quest for power. Tsurumaru had been blinded and left impoverished after Hidetora took over his land and killed his father, a rival lord.

Jiro orders Kurogane to do the deed, but he refuses, warning Jiro that Kaede means to ruin the entire Ichimonji clan. Tango, still watching over Hidetora with Kyoami, encounters two ronin who had once served as spies for Jiro.

Before he kills them both, one of the ronin tells him that Jiro is considering sending assassins after Hidetora.

Alarmed, Tango rides off to alert Saburo. Hidetora becomes even more insane and runs off into a volcanic plain with a frantic Kyoami in pursuit.

News also reaches Jiro that two rival lords allied to Saburo Ayabe and Fujimaki have also entered the territory, forcing Jiro to hastily mobilize his army.

Saburo goes with Kyoami to rescue his father and takes 10 warriors with him; Jiro sends several gunners to follow Saburo and ambush them both.

Saburo finds Hidetora in the volcanic plain; Hidetora partially recovers his sanity, and begins repairing his relationship with Saburo.

Overcome with grief, Hidetora dies. Fujimaki and his army arrive from their victory only to witness Tango and Kyoami lamenting the death of father and son.

She gives a picture of Amida Buddha to him for company while she attempts to retrieve the missing flute. She admits her perfidy and to her plotting to exact revenge against Hidetora and the Ichimonji clan for having destroyed her family years before.

Enraged, Kurogane kills Kaede. A solemn funeral procession is held for Saburo and Hidetora. The film ends with a distance shot of Tsurumaru, blind and alone, silhouetted, atop the ruins.

Filming started in The film also used horses. No miniatures were used for that segment, and Tatsuya Nakadai had to do the scene where Hidetora flees the castle in one take.

Kurosawa often shot scenes with three cameras simultaneously, each using different lenses and angles. Many long-shots were employed and very few close-ups.

On several occasions Kurosawa used static cameras and suddenly brought the action into frame, rather than using the camera to track the action.

He also used jump cuts to progress certain scenes, changing the pace of the action for filmic effect. He halted filming for one day to mourn before resuming work.

His regular recording engineer Fumio Yanoguchi also died late in production in January Motonari was famous for having three sons, all incredibly loyal and talented.

Kurosawa began imagining what would have happened had they been bad. He wrote the script shortly after filming Dersu Uzala in , and then "let it sleep" for seven years.

Kurosawa once said "Hidetora is me", and there is evidence in the film that Hidetora serves as a stand-in for Kurosawa. While he had directed over twenty films in the first two decades of his career, he directed just four in these two decades.

After directing Red Beard , Kurosawa discovered that he was considered old-fashioned and did not work again for almost five years. He also found himself competing against television, which had reduced Japanese film audiences from a high of 1.

In he was fired from the 20th Century Fox epic Tora! A year later, unable to secure any domestic funding and plagued by ill-health, Kurosawa attempted suicide by slashing his wrists.

Though he survived, his misfortune continued to plague him until the late s. Judicial system of Iran. Foreign relations of Iran. Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War. Education in Iran and Science and technology in Iran. Religion in Iran and Irreligion in Iran.

Iranian art and Arts of Iran. Achaemenid architecture , Parthian art , Sasanian art , Safavid art , Qajar art , and Iranian modern and contemporary art.

Iranian architecture and Persian gardens. Ruins of the Tachara , part of the World Heritage site of Persepolis. Literature in Iran , Iranian literature , and Persian literature.

Iranian mythology and Iranian folklore. Persian theater and Persian dance. Cinema of Iran and History of Iranian animation.

List of festivals in Iran. Public holidays in Iran. Weightlifter Kianoush Rostami wins gold at the Summer Olympics.

Taekwondo athlete Kimia Alizadeh wins bronze at the Summer Olympics. Iran portal Middle East portal. The word also appears four times in Old Persian: One is in the Behistun inscription , where ariya- is the name of a language DB 4.

Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. As referred to in art. The de facto motto however is: Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 17 October The New York Times May 17, Archived from the original PDF on 8 September Retrieved 2 November The Idea of Iran , London: The name "Iran" disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor.

But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam.

On the other hand, when the Safavids not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations.

Rebirth of a Persian Empire. Retrieved 21 June Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 29 November Retrieved 14 September Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity: Disciplinary and Regional Perspectives Volume 1.

Archived from the original on 26 February Retrieved 26 February Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 1 August Archived from the original on 12 December Archived from the original on 8 December Bought and Sold for English Gold: The Union of Structures and Choices, 2nd ed.

Media ancient region, Iran". Retrieved 25 August Brody; Oswyn Murray; Lisa R. Encyclopedia of the ancient Greek world.

Retrieved 17 August The Jews of Arab Lands. Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies: London, 21—26 August, , Volume 1.

Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed. The Sword of Persia: Retrieved 27 May Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction.

Retrieved 8 August Archived from the original on 10 April Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 18 June Herbert Hunt, 18 May ".

Archived from the original on 3 January Retrieved 24 May Archived from the original on 13 March Archived from the original on 3 March The New York Times.

Archived from the original on 12 April Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 23 May Frye 20 October Archived from the original on 23 April Community and Culture in Changing Social Contexts.

The Harvard Theological Review. I use the term Iran in an historical context [ I use the term "Greater Iran" to mean what I suspect most Classicists and ancient historians really mean by their use of Persia — that which was within the political boundaries of States ruled by Iranians.

Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 7 February Archived from the original on 11 February The American Heritage Dictionary.

Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 26 August The earliest village in Susiana". Archived from the original on 25 July Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 18 December Ancient Near Eastern Art.

University of California Press. Retrieved 4 July The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State.

Archived from the original on 12 March Modern civilization began in Iran based on new evidence", 12 August Retrieved 1 October Archived from the original on 13 May Retrieved 28 April Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 6 May Archived from the original on 29 June Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 29 April The Heritage of Eastern Turkey: From Earliest Settlements to Islam.

Archived from the original on 1 July Meyer and Andreades , p. Cowley and , p. Retrieved 11 March In the Bible e. Archived from the original on 3 December Archived from the original on 5 June The Age of Faith: The Story of Civilization.

Retrieved 16 December The art of Sassanians". The Historical Dimension of World Politics. Retrieved 30 November Philosophy East and West. Their Religious Beliefs and Practices 2 ed.

The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Its Origins and Development to the Present Day. In Frye, Richard N. Cambridge History of Iran. A History of the Muslim World: The age of the caliphs Illustrated ed.

Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 17 June The Shaping of the Arabs.

Iran 2, revised ed. Retrieved 23 June A Persian Muslim called Abu Muslim. A Short History of Islam. The Cambridge History of Iran.

The Figure of the Religious Poet". Vol 2, No 1 Issue — March — Section Retrieved 26 October Hovannisian; Georges Sabagh The Persian Presence in the Islamic World.

The Golden age of Islam [ From Babel to Dragomans: Interpreting the Middle East: Interpreting the Middle East. Archived from the original on 25 June Archived from the original on 9 September I The Age of the Caliphs.

A Short History of Iraq. Retrieved 20 June Politics, Energy and Security. A Brief History of Iraq. A Borderland in Transition. The newly independent states of Eurasia: Ebel; Robert; Menon, Rajan Energy and conflict in Central Asia and the Caucasus.

Russia and Iran in the great game: The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. Лакцы XIX — нач. Large numbers of Georgian and Armenian captives had lived in Iran since or as far back as Armenian People , p.

The Jews of Iran in the Nineteenth Century: Aspects of History, Community. Fall of the Sultanate: Oxford University Press, Oxford.

By January, Ottoman regulars and cavalry detachments associated with the old Hamidiye had seized the towns of Urmia, Khoy, and Salmas. Demonstrations of resistance by local Christians, comprising Armenians, Nestorians, Syriacs, and Assyrians, led Ottoman forces to massacre civilians and torch villages throughout the border region of Iran.

Without distorting the facts, one can affirm that the centuries-old Armenian presence in the regions of Urmia, Salmast, Qaradagh, and Maku had been dealt a blow from which it would never recover.

American Armenian International College. Assyrians who were killed in Khoy, some Armenian residents of Khoy were also massacred at the same time, June Cultural and Ethical Legacies.

An Introduction to the Modern Middle East: History, Religion, Political Economy, Politics. Hess, "the Iranian Crisis of —46 and the Cold War.

Keddie, Rudolph P Matthee. Iran and the Surrounding World: The New York Review of Books. The Politics of Secularism in International Relations.

Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 25 November Government and Politics [2 volumes]: The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution: Retrieved 22 June America Reacts " ".

The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict. A History of Modern Iran. Cambridge, UK; New York: Retrieved 6 December Ministry of Interior of Iran.

Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 27 June Fifth day of unrest as regime cracks down on critics". Retrieved 15 June The Wall Street Journal.

Retrieved 16 June Asia in the Second Nuclear Age. Retrieved 7 April Archived from the original on 24 June The Book of Iran: A Survey of the Geography of Iran.

World Weather and Climate Information. Archived from the original on 22 September Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 4 August The Complete Fauna of Iran.

International Union for Conservation of Nature. The Life of the Lion. Howard Timmins, Cape Town. Archived from the original on 20 May Hamshahri Online in Persian.

Archived from the original on 23 June Focus on reverse migration". Archived from the original on 26 March Retrieved 17 April Retrieved 28 January ".

Archived from the original on 10 November Archived from the original on 9 March Archived from the original on 27 November Retrieved 24 February Archived from the original on 4 May Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 30 September Retrieved 18 March Three Child Offenders Executed".

Freedom in the World Retrieved 25 May The Islamic Republic of Iran holds elections regularly, but they fall short of democratic standards due to the role of the hard-line Guardian Council, which disqualifies all candidates deemed insufficiently loyal to the clerical establishment.

The regime maintained restrictions on freedom of expression, both offline and online, and made further arrests of journalists, bloggers, labor union activists, and dual nationals visiting the country, with some facing heavy prison sentences.

There were no indications that President Hassan Rouhani, a self-proclaimed moderate seeking reelection in , was willing or able to push back against repressive forces and deliver the greater social freedoms he had promised.

Opposition leaders Mir Hossein Mousavi, his wife Zahra Rahnavard, and reformist cleric Mehdi Karroubi remained under house arrest for a sixth year without being formally charged or put on trial.

As in , the media were barred from quoting or reporting on former president Mohammad Khatami, another important reformist figure. The Times of Israel.

Archived from the original on August 27, Archived from the original on 12 June Archived from the original on 22 December Iran pursues ballistic missile work, complicating nuclear talks".

Archived from the original on 1 August Retrieved 21 May Executive, legislative branch officials endorse privatization plan". Archived from the original on 8 August Giving engagement a chance.

Retrieved 12 December Retrieved 8 January Besides, I have contempt for a game in which players have to wear so much equipment. Men play basketball in their underwear, which seems just right to me.

He liked to think that he was merely compensating for the loss, creating a new frontier that was equally rugged, delineated by chalk marks and nestled in less open spaces in urban centers, where American males needed outlets for their energy When critics lambasted Camp for the roughness of his game, [his college teammate, artist Frederic] Remington implored him not to kowtow to their namby-pambyism.

There was no longer anything in American life—not a mythical West or an Indian war—that counteracted the forces of feminization like football.

Football and the Modern Man , "Introduction: I have no idea Whatever the attraction is, a lot of women seem to be immune to it. The average guy cannot ignore something of this importance.

I like to believe that my best hits border on felonious assault. Another fall, another turned page: The technology is terrific.

TV Viewers Guide , However, there are several differences between a football game and a revolution. For one thing, a football game usually lasts longer and the participants wear uniforms.

Also, there are usually more casualties in a football game. This counts as six points. No points are given for lacerations, contusions, or abrasions, but then no points are deducted, either.

Kicking is very important in football. In fact, some of the more enthusiastic players even kick the football occasionally.

Sachs Life was a damned muddle — a football game with everyone offside and the referee gotten rid of — everyone claiming the referee would have been on his side.

For centuries, we ruled everything, and now, in the last ten minutes, there are all these incursions by women.

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BETSOFT CASINO BONUS CODES Wir erklären euch, was es mit dem Event auf sich hat und um was es für die Teams geht. Hier ein Best of. Bier exen kann er übrigens auch ganz gut. Auch Du kannst helfen! Jets-Star tackelt Bayern gegen hertha live stream kostenlos ran. Der Musiker gilt als Seuchenvogel. Option888 erfahrung forum welche beiden Teams im Finale aufeinandertreffen — es wird ein richtig geiles Duell. Nur die besten ihres Fachs können sich auf Dauer halten. Das Playcalling soll wohl auch ein anderer übernehmen. NFL Lutz und Co.:
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Ran football quoten - you

Bier exen kann er übrigens auch ganz gut. NFL Pro Bowl Wir machen den Check. Wer hat die Nase vorn? Der Musiker gilt als Seuchenvogel. Anderson noch vor gut einem Monat in der Sackgasse.

Had it been decided by football instead of cannon ball, by warm leather instead of cold steel, by booting instead of shooting, the face of History might have grown less grim Bonaparte, instead of dying on St.

Helena, might have lived to play at Olympia. If the only battle-fields were football fields, Nationalism, Patriotism and all the other "isms" that simmer in the souls of nations, would be dissipated in the inspiration and perspiration of the football field.

All would be well with the world, and there would be no bitters in Geneva. This NZ football is rugby.

Confessions of a Last-String Quarterback , Baseball players are smarter than football players. How often do you see a baseball team penalized for too many men on the field?

Dancing is a good example of a contact sport. He took all of us who turned out and had us run through a forest. The ones who ran into the trees were on the football team.

Football is what we have become. It is no use for a woman to announce her intention of going in for Golf unless she is prepared to Besides, I have contempt for a game in which players have to wear so much equipment.

Men play basketball in their underwear, which seems just right to me. He liked to think that he was merely compensating for the loss, creating a new frontier that was equally rugged, delineated by chalk marks and nestled in less open spaces in urban centers, where American males needed outlets for their energy When critics lambasted Camp for the roughness of his game, [his college teammate, artist Frederic] Remington implored him not to kowtow to their namby-pambyism.

There was no longer anything in American life—not a mythical West or an Indian war—that counteracted the forces of feminization like football.

Football and the Modern Man , "Introduction: I have no idea Whatever the attraction is, a lot of women seem to be immune to it.

Director of National Intelligence said that Iran, if choosing to, would not be able to develop a nuclear weapon until The Islamic Republic of Iran has two types of armed forces: Iran also has around , Reserve Force, totaling around , trained troops.

The government of Iran has a paramilitary, volunteer militia force within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps , called the Basij , which includes about 90, full-time, active-duty uniformed members.

Up to 11 million men and women are members of the Basij who could potentially be called up for service. The government of Iran supports the military activities of its allies in Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon Hezbollah with military and financial aid.

Iran controlled over 70, troops deployed in Syria. Since the Revolution, to overcome foreign embargoes, the government of Iran has developed its own military industry, produced its own tanks , armored personnel carriers , missiles , submarines , military vessels, missile destroyer , radar systems, helicopters , and fighter planes.

The objective is to move towards free market prices in a 5-year period and increase productivity and social justice. Iran has also developed a biotechnology , nanotechnology , and pharmaceutical industry.

Currently, the government is trying to privatize these industries , and, despite successes, there are still several problems to be overcome, such as the lagging corruption in the public sector and lack of competitiveness.

In , Iran was ranked 69, out of nations, in the Global Competitiveness Report. Iran has leading manufacturing industries in the fields of automobile manufacture, transportation, construction materials, home appliances, food and agricultural goods, armaments, pharmaceuticals, information technology, and petrochemicals in the Middle East.

Economic sanctions against Iran , such as the embargo against Iranian crude oil, have affected the economy.

Although tourism declined significantly during the war with Iraq, it has been subsequently recovered. Over five million tourists visited Iran in the fiscal year of —, four percent more than the previous year.

Alongside the capital, the most popular tourist destinations are Isfahan , Mashhad , and Shiraz. In , Iran ranked 68th in tourism revenues worldwide.

It also ranks fourth in oil reserves with an estimated ,,, barrels. In the early s, industry infrastructure was increasingly inefficient because of technological lags.

Few exploratory wells were drilled in The addition of new hydroelectric stations and the streamlining of conventional coal and oil-fired stations increased installed capacity to 33, megawatts.

In , Iran opened its first wind-powered and geothermal plants, and the first solar thermal plant was to come online in Education in Iran is highly centralized.

K—12 is supervised by the Ministry of Education , and higher education is under the supervision of the Ministry of Science and Technology. The adult literacy rated The completion of the pre-university course earns students the Pre-University Certificate.

Iran has increased its publication output nearly tenfold from through , and has been ranked first in terms of output growth rate, followed by China.

Iran placed its domestically built satellite Omid into orbit on the 30th anniversary of the Revolution, on 2 February , [] through its first expendable launch vehicle Safir , becoming the ninth country in the world capable of both producing a satellite and sending it into space from a domestically made launcher.

The Iranian nuclear program was launched in the s. Iran is the seventh country to produce uranium hexafluoride , and controls the entire nuclear fuel cycle.

Iranian scientists outside Iran have also made some major contributions to science. In , Ali Javan co-invented the first gas laser , and fuzzy set theory was introduced by Lotfi A.

Furthering research and treatment of diabetes, the HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar. Iranian physics is especially strong in string theory , with many papers being published in Iran.

In August , Iranian mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman, as well as the first Iranian, to receive the Fields Medal , the highest prize in mathematics.

Iran is a diverse country, consisting of numerous ethnic and linguistic groups that are unified through a shared Iranian nationality. Iran hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world, with more than one million refugees, mostly from Afghanistan and Iraq.

According to the Iranian Constitution , the government is required to provide every citizen of the country with access to social security , covering retirement, unemployment, old age, disability , accidents, calamities, health and medical treatment and care services.

UN World Population Prospects []. The majority of the population speak Persian , which is also the official language of the country. Others include speakers of a number of other Iranian languages within the greater Indo-European family, and languages belonging to some other ethnicities living in Iran.

In northern Iran, mostly confined to Gilan and Mazenderan , the Gilaki and Mazenderani languages are widely spoken, both having affinities to the neighboring Caucasian languages.

In parts of Gilan, the Talysh language is also widely spoken, which stretches up to the neighboring Republic of Azerbaijan.

Varieties of Kurdish are widely spoken in the province of Kurdistan and nearby areas. In Khuzestan , several distinct varieties of Persian are spoken.

Lurish and Lari are also spoken in southern Iran. Azerbaijani Turkish , which is by far the most spoken language in the country after Persian, [] as well as a number of other Turkic languages and dialects, is spoken in various regions of Iran, especially in the region of Azerbaijan.

Circassian was also once widely spoken by the large Circassian minority, but, due to assimilation over the many years, no sizable number of Circassians speak the language anymore.

Percentages of spoken language continue to be a point of debate, as many opt that they are politically motivated; most notably regarding the largest and second largest ethnicities in Iran, the Persians and Azerbaijanis.

As with the spoken languages, the ethnic group composition also remains a point of debate, mainly regarding the largest and second largest ethnic groups, the Persians and Azerbaijanis, due to the lack of Iranian state censuses based on ethnicity.

The Library of Congress issued slightly different estimates: Qashqai and Turkmens , and non-Iranian, non-Turkic groups incl. Other non-governmental estimations regarding the groups other than the Persians and Azerbaijanis roughly congruate with the World Factbook and the Library of Congress.

However, many scholarly and organisational estimations regarding the number of these two groups differ significantly from the mentioned census.

According to many of them, the number of ethnic Azerbaijanis in Iran comprises between Historically, early Iranian religions such as the Proto-Iranic religion and the subsequent Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism were the dominant religions in Iran, particularly during the Median, Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian eras.

This changed after the fall of the Sasanian Empire by the centuries-long Islamization that followed the Muslim Conquest of Iran. Iran was predominantly Sunni until the conversion of the country as well as the people of what is today the neighboring Republic of Azerbaijan to Shia Islam by the order of the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century.

There are about 3,, adherents of Yarsanism , a Kurdish indigenous religion related to Zoroastrianism: Its followers are mainly Gorani Kurds and certain groups of Lurs.

Judaism has a long history in Iran , dating back to the Achaemenid conquest of Babylonia. Although many left in the wake of the establishment of the State of Israel and the Revolution, about 8, [] to 25, [] Jewish people live in Iran.

Iran has the largest Jewish population in the Middle East outside of Israel. Most are of Armenian background, as well as a sizable minority of Assyrians.

Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Sunni branch of Islam are officially recognized by the government, and have reserved seats in the Iranian Parliament.

The government has not released statistics regarding irreligiosity. However, irreligious figures are growing and are higher in the diaspora , notably among Iranian Americans.

The earliest attested cultures in Iran date back to the Lower Paleolithic. Owing to its geopolitical position, Iran has influenced cultures as far as Greece and Italy to the west, Russia to the north, the Arabian Peninsula to the south, and south and east Asia to the east.

The art of Iran encompasses many disciplines, including architecture , stonemasonry , metalworking , weaving , pottery , painting , and calligraphy.

Iranian works of art show a great variety in style, in different regions and periods. Greek iconography was imported by the Seleucids , followed by the recombination of Hellenistic and earlier Near Eastern elements in the art of the Parthians , [] with remains such as the Temple of Anahita and the Statue of the Parthian Nobleman.

By the time of the Sasanians, Iranian art came across a general renaissance. During the Middle Ages, Sasanian art played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art, [91] which carried forward to the Islamic world , and much of what later became known as Islamic learning—including medicine , architecture , philosophy , philology , and literature —were of Sasanian basis.

The Safavid era is known as the Golden Age of Iranian art, [] and Safavid works of art show a far more unitary development than in any other period, [] as part of a political evolution that reunified Iran as a cultural entity.

A new Iranian school of fine art was established by Kamal-ol-Molk in , [] and was followed by the so-called "coffeehouse" style of painting. The history of architecture in Iran goes back to the seventh millennium BC.

Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, developing gradually and coherently out of earlier traditions and experience.

Traditionally, the guiding formative motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven".

According to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Pope , the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture.

The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre- and post-Islamic periods. Of the various modern languages used in Iran, Persian , various dialects of which are spoken throughout the Iranian Plateau, [] [] has the most influential literature.

Persian has been dubbed as a worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry, and is considered one of the four main bodies of world literature.

According to The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy , the chronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to BC.

The Cyrus Cylinder , which is known as "the first charter of human rights ", is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zoroaster, and developed in Zoroastrian schools of the Achaemenid era.

Among them are treatises such as the Zatspram, Shkand-gumanik Vizar , and Denkard , as well as older passages of the Avesta and the Gathas.

Iranian mythology consists of ancient Iranian folklore and stories, all involving extraordinary beings, reflecting attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil , actions of the gods, and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures.

Myths play a crucial part in Iranian culture, and understanding of them is increased when they are considered within the context of actual events in Iranian history.

The geography of Greater Iran, a vast area covering present-day Iran, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Central Asia, with its high mountain ranges, plays the main role in much of Iranian mythology.

It draws heavily on the stories and characters of the Zoroastrian tradition, from the texts of the Avesta , the Denkard , and the Bundahishn.

Iran is the apparent birthplace of the earliest complex instruments, dating back to the third millennium BC. Multiple depictions of horizontal harps were also sculpted in Assyrian palaces, dating back between and BC.

The history of Sasanian music is better documented than the earlier periods, and is especially more evident in Avestan texts.

Iranian traditional musical instruments include string instruments such as chang harp , qanun , santur , rud oud , barbat , tar , dotar , setar , tanbur , and kamanche , wind instruments such as sorna zurna , karna and ney , and percussion instruments such as tompak , kus , daf dayere , and naqare.

Iranian pop music has its origins in the Qajar era. The emergence of genres such as rock in the s and hip hop in the s also resulted in major movements and influences in Iranian music.

Before the Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become a famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes, [] with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet.

The artifact, associated with Jiroft , bears five sequential images depicting a wild goat jumping up to eat the leaves of a tree. The figures at Persepolis remain bound by the rules of grammar and syntax of visual language.

It is even possible to see a progenitor of the cinematic close-up shot in one of these works of art, which shows a wounded wild pig escaping from the hunting ground.

By the early 20th century, the five-year-old industry of cinema came to Iran. Later in , Mirza Ebrahim Sahhaf Bashi , a businessman, opened the first public movie theater in Tehran.

Until the early s, there were around 15 cinema theaters in Tehran and 11 in other provinces. The majority of the production focused on melodrama and thrillers.

Attempts to organize a film festival, which had begun in within the framework of the Golrizan Festival, resulted in the festival of Sepas in After the Revolution of , and following the Cultural Revolution , a new age emerged in Iranian cinema, starting with Long Live!

Critics considered this a remarkable event in the history of Iranian cinema. In , he was named as one of the Most Influential People in the world by the American news magazine Time.

It is enjoyed by people adhering to different religions, but is considered a holiday for the Zoroastrians. Alternatively, the Lunar Hejri calendar is used to indicate Islamic events, and the Gregorian calendar remarks the international events.

Due to its variety of ethnic groups and the influences from the neighboring cultures, the cuisine of Iran is diverse. Herbs are frequently used, along with fruits such as plums, pomegranate, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins.

To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic flavorings such as saffron, dried lime, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes.

Onion and garlic are commonly used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form.

Lunch and dinner meals are commonly accompanied by side dishes such as plain yogurt or mast-o-khiar , sabzi , salad Shirazi , and torshi , and might follow dishes such as borani , Mirza Qasemi , or kashk e bademjan as the appetizer.

Being a mountainous country, Iran is a venue for skiing , snowboarding , hiking , rock climbing , [] and mountain climbing.

The Azadi Sport Complex , which is the largest sport complex in Iran, was originally built for this occasion.

Volleyball is the second most popular sport in Iran. In , Iran made global headlines for international female champions boycotting tournaments in Iran in chess U.

Woman Grandmaster Nazi Paikidze [] [] and in shooting Indian world champion Heena Sidhu , [] as they refused to enter a country where they would be forced to wear a hijab.

Iran is one of the countries with the worst freedom of the press situation, ranking th out of countries on the Press Freedom Index as of Television was introduced in Iran in Iran received access to the Internet in According to Internet World Stats, as of [update] , around From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Persia disambiguation. This article is about the modern nation. For other uses, see Iran disambiguation.

Country in Western Asia. Prehistory of Iran and Archaeological sites in Iran. Muslim conquest of Persia and Medieval Iran. Safavid dynasty , Afsharid dynasty , Zand dynasty , and Qajar dynasty.

Agriculture in Iran and Environmental issues in Iran. List of Iranian cities by population. Largest cities or towns in Iran census. Judicial system of Iran.

Foreign relations of Iran. Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War. Education in Iran and Science and technology in Iran.

Religion in Iran and Irreligion in Iran. Iranian art and Arts of Iran. Achaemenid architecture , Parthian art , Sasanian art , Safavid art , Qajar art , and Iranian modern and contemporary art.

Iranian architecture and Persian gardens. Ruins of the Tachara , part of the World Heritage site of Persepolis.

Literature in Iran , Iranian literature , and Persian literature. Iranian mythology and Iranian folklore. Persian theater and Persian dance. Cinema of Iran and History of Iranian animation.

List of festivals in Iran. Public holidays in Iran. Weightlifter Kianoush Rostami wins gold at the Summer Olympics. Taekwondo athlete Kimia Alizadeh wins bronze at the Summer Olympics.

Iran portal Middle East portal. The word also appears four times in Old Persian: One is in the Behistun inscription , where ariya- is the name of a language DB 4.

Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. As referred to in art. The de facto motto however is: Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 17 October The New York Times May 17, Archived from the original PDF on 8 September Retrieved 2 November The Idea of Iran , London: The name "Iran" disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor.

But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam.

On the other hand, when the Safavids not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations.

Rebirth of a Persian Empire. Retrieved 21 June Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 29 November Retrieved 14 September Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity: Disciplinary and Regional Perspectives Volume 1.

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The Harvard Theological Review. I use the term Iran in an historical context [ I use the term "Greater Iran" to mean what I suspect most Classicists and ancient historians really mean by their use of Persia — that which was within the political boundaries of States ruled by Iranians.

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Archived from the original on 1 July Meyer and Andreades , p. Cowley and , p. Kurosawa hired about 1, extras. While most of the characters in Ran are portrayed by conventional acting techniques, two performances are reminiscent of Japanese Noh theater.

Noh is a specialized form of Japanese traditional theater requiring highly trained actors and musicians where emotions are primarily conveyed by stylized conventional gestures.

The body language exhibited by the same character is also typical of Noh theater: The character of Lady Kaede is also Noh-influenced.

The Noh treatment emphasizes the ruthless, passionate, and single-minded natures of these two characters. As they began production his desire had changed degrees, now insisting on a powerful Mahleresque orchestral score.

Takemitsu responded with what many describe as his most romantic effort, one that achieved a perfect blending of Oriental and Occidental sensibilities.

Takemitsu has stated that he was significantly influenced by the Japanese karmic concept of ma interpreted as a surplus of energy surrounding an abundant void.

Listening to my music can be compared with walking through a garden and experiencing the changes in light, pattern and texture.

Lysy summarized the second project stating: Kurosawa constantly sent Takemitsu notes, which only served to infuriate him, so he frequently visited the set to gain a direct sensual experience.

Fortunately producer Masato Hara intervened, made peace, and Takemitsu returned to the film. Years later Takemitsu would relate: But seeing it now Kurosawa originally had wanted the London Symphony Orchestra to perform the score for Ran , but upon meeting conductor Hiroyuki Iwaki of the Sapporo Symphony Orchestra , he engaged Iwaki and the orchestra to record it.

It was produced by Reynold da Silva and David Stoner. As with King Lear , the central theme of the film is its thematic study of the inheritance of power intergenerationally between a single parent and his three children.

Danby argues by analogy that Lear dramatizes, among other things, the contrasting meanings of " Nature ". The "unnatural", or the word " Ran " translated as chaos or the "disordered", occurs in the thematically recurrent scenes of warfare and nihilism depicted throughout the film.

Lady Kaeda and her husband are the new inheriting generation, members of an age of competition, suspicion, glory, in contrast with the older society which has come down from Hidetora and his times, with its belief in co-operation, reasonable decency, and respect for the whole as greater than the part.

Ran , like King Lear , is thus an allegory. The three themes of chaos, nihilism , and warfare recur throughout the film. With reference to chaos, in many scenes Kurosawa foreshadows it by filming approaching cumulonimbus clouds , which finally break into a raging storm during the castle massacre.

Hidetora is an autocrat whose powerful presence keeps the countryside unified and at peace. His abdication frees up other characters, such as Jiro and Lady Kaede, to pursue their own agendas, which they do with absolute ruthlessness.

The ultimate example of chaos is the absence of gods. Unable to see, he stumbles towards the edge until he almost falls over. He drops the scroll of the Buddha his sister had given him and just stands there, "a blind man at the edge of a precipice, bereft of his god, in a darkening world".

In addition to its chaotic elements, Ran also contains a strong element of nihilism , which is present from the opening sequence, where Hidetora mercilessly hunts down a boar only to refrain from eating it, to the last scene with Tsurumaru.

Roger Ebert describes Ran as "a 20th-century film set in medieval times, in which an old man can arrive at the end of his life having won all his battles, and foolishly thinks he still has the power to settle things for a new generation.

But life hurries ahead without any respect for historical continuity; his children have their own lusts and furies.

His will is irrelevant, and they will divide his spoils like dogs tearing at a carcass. Even Kagemusha , though it chronicled the fall of the Takeda clan and their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Nagashino , had ended on a note of regret rather than despair.

By contrast, the world of Ran is a Hobbesian world, where life is an endless cycle of suffering and everybody is a villain or a victim, and in many cases both.

Heroes like Saburo may do the right thing, but in the end they are doomed as well. Unlike other Kurosawa heroes, like Kikuchiyo in Seven Samurai or Watanabe from Ikiru , who die performing great acts, Saburo dies pointlessly.

Considering that its brethren include Kagemusha , Seven Samurai and Dersu Uzala , the achievement is extraordinary. It is finally so moving that the only appropriate response is silence.

Roger Ebert awarded the film four out of four stars, with extended commentary, "Kurosawa while directing Ran often must have associated himself with the old lord as he tried to put this film together, but in the end he has triumphed, and the image I have of him, at 75, is of three arrows bundled together.

Michal Sragow writing for Salon in summarized the Shakespearean origins of the play: At the start, this bold, dominating figure, now called Hidetora, is a sacred monster who wants to be a sort of warlord emeritus.

He hopes to bequeath power to his oldest son while retaining his own entourage and emblems of command. Serge Silberman tried to get it nominated as a French co-production but failed.

Ran won two awards from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts , for best foreign-language film and best make-up artist, and was nominated for best cinematography, best costume design, best production design, and best screenplay—adapted.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Luna Sea song, see Ran song.

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